In the world of online banking, ACH is often used as shorthand for Automated Clearing House. This refers to the national network that processes electronic payments and direct deposits.
What is ACH?
ACH is an electronic network for financial transactions in the United States which processes large volumes of both credit and debit transactions every day, including direct deposit of payroll and Social Security payments, bill payments, and other business-to-business payments.
What are the benefits of using ACH?
ACH payments are typically used for one-time or recurring payments, such as direct deposit of payroll or monthly bill payments.
Some benefits of using ACH payments include:
- They are cheaper than other types of electronic payments, such as credit card or wire transfers.
- They can be processed quickly, often within one to two business days.
- They are relatively secure, with built-in fraud protection measures.
- They can be recurring, which can be helpful for budgeting purposes.
Each day, banks send batches of ACH transactions to a central location, where they are then processed and settled. Because the ACH network processes transactions in batches, credits and debits may not be reflected in your account immediately. For example, if you make an online payment on Monday night, the transaction may not be processed and settled until Wednesday morning.
Who can use ACH?
Individuals can also use ACH to make payments, such as for online shopping or peer-to-peer payments. To make an ACH payment, the payer will need the recipient’s bank account number and routing number.
There are a few different types of ACH transactions, but the most common are ACH transfers and ACH deposits.
ACH transfers are initiated by the payer and initiated via their financial institution. The funds are then transferred from the payer’s account to the recipient’s account. More than 23 billion ACH transactions were processed in 2017, totaling more than $51 trillion.
ACH deposits are initiated by the recipient and authorized via their financial institution. The funds are then transferred from the payer’s account to the recipient’s account.
What are the most common ACH transactions?
Most ACH transactions are routine payments for things like insurance premiums, mortgage loans and utility bills. These so-called “ Godds” make up about 70 percent of all ACH transactions, while the remaining 30 percent are what are called “ Person-to-Person” (P2P) payments, such as those made through Venmo or PayPal.
The most common P2P payments include:
- Direct deposit of payroll or government benefits
- Online bill payment
- Peer-to-peer (P2P) payment services like Venmo or Paypal
- ACH transfers between bank accounts
How secure is ACH?
ACH is a secure system, but there is always a risk of fraud when you share your bank account information with another party. To reduce your risk, only share your bank account information with trusted organizations and businesses. If you’re unsure whether an organization is legitimate, contact your bank or credit union before sharing your information.
What are the fees associated with ACH?
There are a few different fees associated with Automated Clearing House (ACH) transactions. These fees can be assessed to either the sender or the recipient of the funds, depending on the agreement between the two parties.
The first type of fee is the ACH transaction fee. This is a small fee charged by the financial institution for processing an ACH transaction. This fee is usually passed on to the sender of the funds.
The second type of fee is the ACH network fee. This fee is charged by the network that processes and clears the ACH transactions. This fee is usually passed on to the recipient of the funds.
The third type of fee is the bank account maintenance fee. This is a small monthly fee charged by some financial institutions for maintaining a bank account. This fee is usually passed on to the account holder.
ACH transaction fees, ACH network fees, and bank account maintenance fees are all typically very small, so they should not have a significant impact on most ACH transactions.
How do I get started with ACH?
To get started with ACH, you’ll need to have a U.S. bank account and be able to provide some basic information about yourself and your bank account. You’ll also need to have a way to receive ACH payments, which can be done through a number of different service providers. Once you have all of the necessary information and an ACH-enabled account, you can begin receiving payments via ACH.
What are some common ACH errors?
There are a few common ACH errors that can occur during processing. These include:
- Non-sufficient funds (NSF): This occurs when there are not enough funds in the account to cover the transaction.
- Unauthorized transaction: This occurs when the account holder does not authorize the transaction.
- Invalid account number: This occurs when the account number is incorrect or does not exist.
- Expired card: This occurs when the card used for the transaction has expired.
Where can I find more information about ACH?
When you make an online purchase with a debit or credit card, the transaction is processed through the card associations’ (Visa, Mastercard, etc.) networks. In contrast, when you make an ACH payment or direct deposit, the transaction is processed through the ACH network.
The ACH network is overseen by NACHA – The Electronic Payments Association, a not-for-profit trade association that sets rules and operating guidelines for the ACH network. Financial institutions that process ACH transactions must be members of NACHA.